To support the development of sustainable building renovation activities by energy cooperatives and communities (citizen-led renovation) we have analysed the business models of three cooperatives - Carbon Co-op (UK), Energy Communities Tipperary Cooperative (Ireland), and Klimaatpunt/Pajopower (Flanders) - for the delivery of such activities. To accompany the business model overview we have analysed the context in which they operate using the PESTLE method looking at Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal factors relevant to citizen-led renovation in the UK, Ireland, Flanders (Belgium), and the Netherlands.